All participating youth were asked to complete a questionnaire, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM). Some were also asked to participate in an one-on-one interview where they could talk about their lives. Adults were asked to participate in a focus group where they could talk about their lives and how they understood the challenges facing youth in their communities.

The international team members met to discuss literature and existing instruments related to youth resilience, and to speak about their communities and what challenges youth experience living there. Based on this meeting, a qualitative interview schedule was developed that researchers were to use in focus groups with adults and youth in their community. From these focus groups, each site made a list of questions that one should ask in order to understand what it takes to grow-up well in that community. These lists were compiled at 58 questions were chosen for the first version of the CYRM.

At least 2 youth from each site also participated in the qualitative component of the study. During these interviews youth were asked questions such as “what would I need to know to grow up well here” and “What does it mean to you, to your family, and to your community when bad things happen.”


The Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) is a measure of the resources (individual, relational, communal and cultural) available to individuals that may bolster their resilience. The measure has 3 subscales accounting for personal, relational, and contextual factors implicated in resilience processes. The CRYM-28 seeks to provide a more inclusive understanding of the processes of resilience across culture and context, accounting for the heterogeneity of culture and experiences of youth.

The CYRM was originally designed for use with youth aged 9 to 23 years old. Since its initial validation, the measure has also been adapted into a 26 item version for use with children aged 5 to 9 years old, a 28 item version for use with adults (aged 24 and older) and a 28 item version used to obtain data from a person most knowledgeable (PMK) about a child/youth’s life. For all four versions of the CYRM (child, youth, adult, and PMK) a reduced resilience measure consisting of 12 items is available as well as versions offering either a 3 point response scale or 5 point response scale.